Kaczmarek was an initiator of the Poznan Anarchist Library. For several years he collected items, organised the archive and acted as a librarian. An electrician by profession, he made a living working in Poznan’s housing associations, while voluntarily co-running the library in Rozbrat. While co-creating the library, Kaczmarek started library studies, which enables him to create a professional archive documentanig the anarchist movement – gathered in folders and organised in catalogues by subject and time.
Simultaneously, Kaczmarek was involved in publishing in the Anarchistyczna Oficyna Wydawnicza Nabat (a publishing house). After two years (1997-1999) Nabat ceased to function and its texts were taken over by another publishing house: Oficyna Wydawnicza Bractwa Trojka. Some books and brochures Kaczmarek published also as a Pubslihing House of Poznan Anarchist Library. Within this initiative he edited the „Bulletin of Poznan Anarchist Library”, to which he also contributed as a main author. After the “Bulletin” had been changed into the “Anarchistic Review” in 2007, Kaczmarek entered its editing board; he also wrote numerous articles on the anarchist movement. He continued the publishing activity within Bractwo Trojka where he elaborated several issues. With time, Kaczmarek withdrew from being an active member of the anarchist movement – both for ideological and personal reasons; since a few years he has not engaged in the library’s and publishing house’s activities.
- Poznań, Poland
Milena Kalinovská is an art theoretician and former director of the Collection of Modern and Contemporary Art at the National Gallery in Prague (2015-2018). She emigrated from Czechoslovakia in 1970, then she studied in the United Kingdom and in Canada. Until 2015, she worked in the United States as a director of collections and curator.
- Boston, United States of America
- London, United Kingdom
- Praha, Prague, Czech Republic
- Washington, United States
Mart Kalm (b. 1961) is an Estonian art historian. He gained his PhD in 1998 from the Estonian Academy of Art, where he defended his dissertation ‘The Formation of the Architectural Culture in Estonia in 1918–1940’, and has been the rector of the institution since 2015. He has worked there in several positions over the years since 1992.
Kalm studied art history at the Tartu State University in 1979–1984, and was an active member of the Noor-Tartu (Young-Tartu) student movement. He is one of owners of the movement’s collection today.
- Tallinn , Estonia undefined
Kalynets was a poet, and a member of the sixtiers movement, who tried to break the creative stranglehold of socialist realism. His first collection of poems Excursion (Ekskursiya), dedicated to the history, art and architecture of Lviv was positively reviewed, but never saw the light of day. By 1965, he and his wife were both under continuous surveillance by the KGB, but he continued to try to publish his poetry, which was printed in the journals "Zhovten'" and "Dnipro." His collection titled A Country of Carols (Kraina koliadok) never made it past the censors, though some of them were included in his next collection The Fire of Kupalo (Vohon' Kupala) published in 1966. All copies of it were immediately confiscated and suppressed, making Kalynets another poet whose only creative outlet was samizdat. He was also interrogated by the KGB and questioned about "suspicious places" (pidozrilykh mists'). Kalynets was essentially blacklisted after this. He was not only denied entry into the Ukrainian Writers Union but also asked to withdraw a planned publication titled The Opening of the Vertep (Vidchynennia Vertepu), which was eventually smuggled out of Ukraine and published in Belgium in 1970 as Poetry from Ukraine (Poezii z Ukrainy).
Publishing abroad also carried risks. The KGB initiated another investigation into Kalynets after his poems were spotted in the "nationalist press" in Munich in 1970. That year, the rearrest of historian Valentyn Moroz (imprisoned in 1965, released, and then arrested again) for his open and aggressive condemnation of the Soviet police state, particularly ongoing censorship, arbitrary arrests and routine cruelty, spurred his colleagues and friends, and the human rights community more generally, into action. Kalynets, his wife Iryna, and others signed petitions, letters to the Soviet leadership, and organized protests. In 1971, a volume of Kalynets' poetry dedicated to Moroz was published in Munich. Its title Reassessing Silence (Pidsumovuiuchy movchannia) attracted the attention of censors and the Soviet state.
The turning point for this Lviv circle of dissidents was the staging of a “vertep,” or portable puppet theatre and drama that presents the nativity scene, in January 1972 in a show of moral support for the arrests of artists, writers, and other dissidents who were either arrested in 1965 or faced continuous repression and surveillance in the years that followed. 19 of the 45 participants in this “vertep” were arrested in 12-14 January 1972, tried for anti-Soviet activities and sent to hard labour camps in Siberia, including Iryna Stasiv-Kalynets. Ihor Kalynets was arrested much later in August 1972 after a prolonged attempt by the KGB to pressure him into renouncing his own views and those of his wife, which did not succeed. The evidence against him presented in court included volumes of his own poetry, which had been published abroad, particularly the one that had been dedicated to Valentyn Moroz, as well as contacts with suspicious people and foreigners. He was sentenced to six years of hard labor and three of exile. He was sent to the strict regime hard labor camps in Perm (first Perm-35 and later Perm-36) where he worked in the laundry, and also continued the struggle for human rights, participating in a series of hunger strikes in 1974 in protest of arbitrary infringements on prisoner rights.
Kalynets was released in 1981, found work in Lviv as a librarian first at the district level and later at the library of the Academy of Sciences in Lviv. During perestroika, Ihor and Iryna Kalynets were actively involved in supporting artists and composers still being repressed by the Soviet regime. He was elected a deputy of the Lviv Regional Council in 1990 and after independence continued working and publishing. His poetry was translated into French and published in a large volume, and he has also written a number of children's books.
- Lviv, Ukraine
István Kamarás is a sociologist of religion, a writer, and a professor. He was born in 1941 in Munkács (today Mukacsevo, Ukraine). He was a member of an illegal Catholic movement in Szentimreváros. After having completed high school, he couldn’t attend university, because he had studied the Bible and he wasn’t a member of the working class or the child of a peasant family. After working as a physical labourer for two years, he was accepted by an institution of higher education. He graduated from the Hungarian-Library Department of Eötvös Loránd University. He was a member of the staff of the university periodical Tiszta Szívvel (“With a Pure Heart,” an allusion to a poem by Attila József), which caused a political scandal. In the periodical, people whose mentalities differed from what was expected by the regime criticized the socialist system. Some of these people later on became famous writers and intellectuals. He studied aesthetics at the Marxist-Leninist Evening University and sociology at Eötvös Loránd University. His first workplace was in the Archival Group in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and between 1968 and 1985 he worked at the Reading Research Class in the Centre of Library Sciences and Methodology of the National Széchényi Library, where he mainly pursued research on the sociology of reading. In 1985, he was given a position at the Cultural Research Centre, where he pursued research on the sociology of religion. Between 1990 and 1995, he worked at the National Educational Institute, and from 1996 to 1998 he was a professor at the Teachers’ Training Institute of the Janus Pannonius University of Sciences. He also taught at Pannon University (1999–2010), where he founded the Department of Anthropology and Ethics. He published several works of literature (the first was published in 1965), and he wrote many storybooks and novels.