The leaflet was created in August 1968 after the occupation of Czechoslovakia by five armies of the Warsaw Pact. From the beginning of the invasion on August 21, 1968, spontaneous demonstrations of resentment and opposition to the occupation took place. One of the demonstrations of resistance was the display of hundreds of posters, passwords and banners on walls, showcases, trams and buses, calling on the occupants to leave.
The leaflet proves that the population opposed the occupation openly and that even in this tedious and difficult situation, a sense of humor was not lost.
The flyer was exhibited at the exhibition, “…And tanks arrived/” Prague, National Museum, 2008.
- Na Zátorách 6, 170 00 Praha 7 - Holešovice, Czech Republic
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Legend says József Fodor was a prominent guide and organizer of religious festivals for a long time. When he appeared, he soon became the main figure of the events, beyond the liturgy proper. The old pilgrims had already known him and expected his entrance on these occasions.József Fodor was born on 27 June 1921 in Veresegyháza. He learned how to lead a religious festival procession from his mother, who died in 1936. In 1940, Fodor began to lead regular pilgrimages to various shrines. In his handwritten and illustrated book, he documented his religious festival trips from 1957 to 1974. The book contains photos and religious quotes.
On each trip, he asked the parish priest, the chief lieutenant, or the bishop to add personal notes to his collection. Between 1957 and 1974, he led 153 pilgrimage groups, 12 of which went abroad. In the nearly ten years between 1962 and 1971, 120 groups took a pilgrimage trip with his guidance. In the course of his journeys, he visited 45 Hungarian and 16 foreign shrines. He often returned to a few of his favorite places, but he always strove to visit new places. He was ill for longer periods. We don’t know much about the pilgrimages he took after 1974. József Fodor died in Budapest in 1984. József Fodor’s book was made part of the collection of the Christian Museum in 1986.
Sándor Soós published József Fodor’s book in 2008. Soós listed the pilgrimages which Fodor had led, and he wrote about his life and his pilgrimage trips.
Žarana Papić’s correspondence in this folder documents how she was trying to bring some of the most important names of European feminism to Belgrade - among them Simone de Beauvoir, Sheila Rowbotham, Luce Irigaray and Juliet Mitchell. For this occasion, Papić compiled an impressive list of accompanying texts, which were supposed to familiarize the domestic audience with the key works of Western feminism, but also to provide foreigners with an insight into the specific position of women in Yugoslavia’s self-managing socialism. The featured item presents a translation of a text by Žarana Papić from Serbian into English. It was provided as background reading for the participants of the Drug-ca žena International Symposium. As the typescript is hardly legible, COURAGE transcribed the text in the enclosed word document.
Participant Rada Iveković pointed out the importance of the conference: “Before the conference, we did not exist, we came into being during that conference, we did not know each other. Žarana brought us together in one place, and we were not a group yet, we did not know that we could represent something. We realized that we are many, and that each of us is doing something for feminism.”
That is how the conference came to be remembered as an event which stimulated the development of feminist consciousness among young women in Yugoslavia at that time. Drug-ca opened two key issues, for which Žarana Papić’s activism and position were of crucial importance. The first question was on the reception of feminism in the socialist state. In the approach drawn up for the conference, Papić writes “What are the elements of a practical, social and individual new feminist consciousness, what is new in public behavior and what are its characteristics? […] It is also necessary to ask the question of what happened to women, and what changes in the gender balance disappeared after the shaky socialist revolutions. What is the real position in socialism that has been achieved by striving for emancipation and what problems remain unresolved?”
The second question was related to the situation of Yugoslav feminists between the West and East. This question was linked to the non-aligned position of Yugoslavia since the Tito-Stalin split in 1948. The general topics of the conference were the experiences and specificities of the Yugoslav situation with regard to the results and achievements in problematizing the “female“ issue.
The Drug-ca Symposium made it possible to speak about the imbalance between the positions of female and male compatriots, and through it the word feminism gained significance in the former Yugoslavia.
Translated in 1945 by Teresa Jeleńska, Orwell’s Animal Farm was first published in Polish by the Radio Free Europe in 1956, and later by Jerzy Kulczycki émigré Odnowa press in 1974. Jeleńska met Orwell in London during World War 2 and corresponded with him until his death in 1950. In 1979, NOWA, the emerging giant of Polish samizdat, re-published the London edition with the illustrations and cover page designed by Andrzej Krauze (1947-), a Polish and British political cartoonist known for his damning portrayals of the communist party nomenklatura. Krauze’s contribution to the NOWA publication cost him his job in the Kultura weekly in Warsaw. In the same year, Krauze emigrated to the West and eventually settled in Great Britain where joined the team of The Guardian, reviving the art of political cartoon in the British press. A copy of the NOWA edition of Animals Farm participated in the 1984 British Library exhibition on George Orwell’s works in the languages of Eastern Europe.
- London, United Kingdom
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