4 April was one of the most important public holidays in socialist Hungary, because on this day in 1945, the Soviet Red Army finally ousted the German troops from the country. On 4 April, people were required to participate in commemorative marches, but the members of the Calvinist youth organization of Pasarét never accepted the official Communist ideology of the state. Rather, they organized excursions to the mountains around Budapest. This picture was taken on Zsíros Mountain during one of these excursions.
- Budajenő, Hungary 2093
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Memorandum is the most important step of the Roma-Gypsy Union in the issue of recognition and the national status for the Roma. It was drafted on 17th April 1970, by the Society of Sciences of the Union. In the memorandum, the commission noted that the prior determination of who the Roma are is insufficient. The Memorandum states that when the SCR was made possible for Roma to sign up for their nationality. The authors did not only consider the Roma issue as a social problem, but they also realised the national definition and its needs. Ethnic identities understood as a stabilisation of the right to exist with their ethnic determination, self-identity. Differences of Roma understood on the basis of culture, language, music, folklore, behavioural norms and others. They accepted the objection of non-existence of their own territory, but they also argued that in the USSR Roma were recognised as nationalities. Roma were the second largest minority in Bohemia, right after the Hungarians. The Roma, according to the Memorandum, did not insist on separate schools or the introduction of Romani as an official language, but they understood the status of nationality as "a right, not a directive".
The Memorandum was not intended as political coercion, yet it was understood like that and was strongly challenged by party bodies. Memorandum initiator Dr. Milena Hübschmannová, a well-known Roma and a member of the Union Socio-Scientific Committee, was named. As a result, "the Department of Education and Science of the Central Committee of the Communist Party exercised influence on the examination of this issue and did not allow partial scientific knowledge to be transmitted to political practice to feed the wrong tendencies." In the autumn of 1970 the Central Committee of the SCR abandoned the promotion of the memorandum.
The Memorandum is located in the collections of the Museum of Romany Culture, where it was put together with the estate of Miroslav Holomek.
Jaroslav Mezník's critical commentary on the Charter 77 document No. 11/1984, The Right for History is written on a tape machine, has 9 pages, and is dated to the 17th November, 1984. Jaroslav Mezník criticises the black and white negative claims made by the authors of the document. A relatively long critical commentary is compiled by quoting a problematic passage of the document, followed by an evaluation ("inaccurate", "false", "very problematic"), and a detailed analysis with the submission of Mezník´s arguments. Mezník found most of the problems simple, and taking what the document claimed, he demonstrated a more varied spectrum of professional thinkers and scholars within contemporary Czechoslovak historiography. The most problematic part of the Document for Mezník is the sentence, "History without a human being and without God naturally cannot have any meaning…“, which caused a great upheaval among other philosophers too. At the end of the commentary Mezník expressed his sadness over the document that had been drafted. The interlocking critical response to the document led to debates that continued into the following year and led to the publication of the text History and Historiography, which partly revised the original radical denouncement of official Czechoslovak historical science.
- Brno, Czech Republic
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Pasărea însăși a fost o figură centrală în opera lui Baász. În prefața catalogului de expoziție Pasărea și lumea păcii din 1986, artistul explică folosirea motivului etern al păsării. Conform acestui text, pasărea apare ca simbolul puterii creatoare artistice în opera lui. Aripile – prezente în arta lui Baász și fără trupul păsării – ne amintesc de opțiunile, posibilitățile noastre.
În imprimarea serigrafică din 1984 suntem confruntați cu două tipuri de reprezentări ale pasării. În primul rând, vedem un stol de păsări zburând împreună pe dreapta, organizat, pe un fond albastru. În al doilea rând, vedem o vrabie, care nu este un animal real, ci o jucărie de tip wind-up, care trăiește numai dacă este activată. În ciuda dezavantajelor, vrabia e mult mai mare decât păsările reale. Această operă stigmatizează încă o dată emigrația, făcând o paralelă între păsările călătoare și prietenii lui Baász. Conform unei alte interpretări, cele șapte păsări călătoare simbolizează cele șapte scaune secuiești, adepte ale valorilor tradiționale, pe când vrabia poate fi interpretată ca alter ego-ul artistului, care optează pentru valori și metode proaspete și alege să se concentreze pe viitor în locul trecutului.
The last issue of the CADDY bulletin contained a recapitulation of the work of both the CADDY and the bulletin itself. Although the last issue appeared in November 1992, sometime later, at the beginning of March 1994, it was announced that the work of the CADDY had ended, which included the publication of the bulletin. This all happened against the backdrop of the definitive disintegration of the Yugoslav state and the war in its former territory. Such a turn of events signalled a defeat for the ideals championed by Mihajlo Mihajlov and Rusko Matulić as the main leaders of the project, who believed in the possibility of maintaining Yugoslavia in a democratized form.
Most likely, this epilogue forced Mihajlov and Matulić to forsake their work around the CADDY and the bulletin. On the other hand, there was no single-party dictatorship in the republics of the former Yugoslavia, and the public was no longer strictly controlled as it was in the preceding period. During the 1990s, the first multiparty elections were held in all of the Yugoslav republics. However, in his final message to readers, Mihajlov pointed out the pioneering role of the CADDY in informing the Western public about the status of political freedoms and human rights in Yugoslavia, and in presenting the fate of each dissident. He also stressed that CADDY was quoted in over 20 books and 60 magazines and newspapers throughout the Western world. (Rusko Matulic Papers, box 4).