Mari Vallikivi is an Estonian art historian, and the curator of exhibitions and a work coordinator at the Kondas Centre of Naive Art. She studied at the Estonian Academy of Arts, and graduated with a BA in 1998. After that, she worked for Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastus (the Estonian Publisher of Encyclopedias). Since 2003, she has been a curator at the Kondas Centre. Her main research interest is amateur art during the Soviet period. As a curator, she has to study a large number of different fields, due to the numerous temporary exhibitions at the Kondas Centre. In her opinion, approximately 300 exhibitions have been held. She has worked at the Kondas Centre since its beginning, and has been engaged in its development. In 2008, she began to research Kondas' person and work more closely. By now, thanks to Kondas’ letters and diaries, she has decoded several of his works. Mari Vallikivi considers the study of cultural opposition important, because it is part of Estonian history. The paintings by Kondas are part of this, which becomes clearer and clearer the more information about him is collected. According to Vallikivi, all art should be cultural opposition, in the sense that an artwork without a message does not move forward, art must address and upset, if not directly, then between the lines and allegorically.
- Viljandi , Estonia
Prof. PaedDr. Mgr. Miroslav Vaněk, Ph.D. is a Czech historian who specializes in modern Czech history. From 2000-2017 he was the head of the Oral History Centre of the Institute of Contemporary History of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Since 2017, he has been the director of this Institute.
Miroslav Vaněk received a first in history, Czech language, pedagogy and psychology when graduated from grammar school. Later he received a doctorate from the Faculty of Arts of the Palacký University in Olomouc and is now a lecturer at the Faculty of Arts of the Charles University in Prague.
Prior to 1990, he worked as a primary school teacher. After 1989, he became interested in oral history largely due to his concentration in capturing the events of 17 November 1989 in Czechoslovakia. He then joined the Institute of Contemporary History of the Czech Academy of Sciences, where he later participated in the foundation of the Oral History Centre. He focuses on the theory and methodology of oral history, political elites and dissent and independent musical genres. Since 2006, he has been working at the Faculty of Humanities at Charles University, where he also founded the Master’s Program of Oral History - Contemporary History in 2008.
- VANĚK, Miroslav (ed.). Obyčejní lidé..?! Pohled do života tzv. mlčící většiny. Životopisná vyprávění příslušníků dělnických profesí a inteligence. Praha, Academia 2009. 3 volumes, 1306 p.
- VANĚK, Miroslav. O orální historii s jejími zakladateli a protagonisty. Praha, Ústav pro soudobé dějiny 2008, 135 p.
- VANĚK, Miroslav. Mocní a bezmocní? Politické elity a disent v období tzv. normalizace. Interpretační studie životopisných interview. Praha, Prostor 2006, 412 p.
- VANĚK, M., URBÁŠEK, P. Vítězové? Poražení? Politické elity a disent v období tzv. normalizace. Životopisná interview. Prostor, Praha 2005, 1970 p.
- VANĚK, Miroslav. Orální historie ve výzkumu soudobých dějin. Praha: Ústav pro soudobé dějiny AV ČR, 2004. 175 p.
- VANĚK, Miroslav – MÜCKE, Pavel. Velvet Revolutions: An Oral History of Czech Society. New York – Oxford, Oxford University Press 2016, 264 p.
- VANĚK, Miroslav. Those Who Prevailed And Those Were Replaced: Interview On Both Sides of A Conflict. In: Donald A. Richtie (ed.), The Oxford Handbook Of Oral History. Oxford University Press 2011, pp. 37–50.
... and others.
- Praha, Prague, Czech Republic
Mojmir Vanek was a scientist, professor of history and journalism, dissident, organizer of Czech cultural life in Switzerland, and also chairman of the Swiss group of the Society for Science and the Arts.
Mojmir Vanek was born on February 9, 1911 in Přerov. He came from a family of teachers and musicians, which influenced his later interests and focus. He attended a grammar school in Přerov and as one of the best pupils of Czechoslovakia, he was awarded a scholarship by the Czechoslovak Ministry of Education to complete his secondary school in France at the Lycée National in Nimes. He then completed his Bachelor's degree at the University of Montpellier and later graduated from Charles University in 1936, where he received his law ldegree. He then completed his studies in Vienna and Krakow. Prior to World War II, he studied history and cultural history (including the history of music) at the Faculty of Philosophy of the Charles University in Prague while also working as an assistant at the Faculty of Law of Charles University.
During the war he worked as the presidential secretary of the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts. During the Nazi occupation, they were granting support from so-called Jewish funds to young artists and musicians who often worked under the cover name, mainly for racial reasons, among others for example now famous Czech composer Miroslav Kabeláč. After the war, he was president Edvard Beneš's personal secretary and in 1946 he was released on the orders of President Benes and Minister Jan Masaryk to serve as Senior Counsellour at the UNESCO Secretariat, first in London and then in Paris where he became the first Director of the Arts and Music Section.
His work was interrupted in February 1948 when he was expelled from the Office of the President of the Republic on 26 February 1948 because of the decision of the so-called Action Committee. In 1949, he was arrested along with Milada Horáková and four other colleagues. On 21 July 1950 he was convicted by the so-called state court in Prague for alleged high treason and spying and sentenced to 18 years of heavy imprisonment. He served a punishment of eleven years, of which he spent seven months in solitary confinement at Ruzyne Prison without walks, visits or correspondence. The remainder of his sentence was served in Prague-Pankrác, Česká Lípa, Plzeň-Bory, Pardubice, Leopoldov, Uranium mines in Příbram, Mírov and Valdice. This conviction was expunged from his criminal record only in 1990, however, in 1960, Mojmir Vanek was released from prison during the amnesty conditionally for five years.
He then worked as a metal worker for a few years, and in 1967 he started working at the National Gallery in Prague. In 1966 he also became secretary of the Congress of the International Association of Fine Critics (AICA) in Prague, which he founded in 1946 while working at UNESCO.
In 1969 he went to Geneva, Switzerland, at the invitation of Musée d'art et d'histoire and where he also received the right to asylum as a political refugee in Switzerland. There he collaborated with the Musée d'étour d'Historia de Geneve. He lectured at universities in Geneva, Lyon and Tours. Mojmir Vanek is the author of about 20 studies, articles and translations of scientific papers and many dozens of articles in the daily press.
Mojmir Vanek actively engaged in culture. He saved the famous Prague Quartet before the break-up and organized several series of concerts in Prague. Later, he also did the same thing for the Czech Nonet. In 1940 he was appointed to be a member of the Society for Contemporary Music. After the end of the war he became a member of the constituent committee of the Prague Spring International Music Festival. During his work at UNESCO, he was the main organizer of the International Art Festival, which was launched on 28 October 1946 by a festive concert of the Czech Philharmonic Orchestra. After February 1948, he could no longer continue his cultural activities until his emigration to Switzerland, where he continued to do so. Mojmir Vanek organized exhibitions of Czech art at the Museum of Art and History in Geneva, the Kunsthaus in Zurich, exhibitions of Czech graphics at the museums in Lausanne, Geneva and La Chaux-de-Fonds and others. In 1971, after the establishment of the Swiss Society of Science and Arts, based in New York, organised the Symposium “Culture and Freedom” to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Czechoslovakia. It was organized by Mojmír Vaněk in Geneva and many prominent scientists from all over Europe spoke at this symposium. This event had a huge response in the Swiss press. Likely it was due to this event that Mojmir Vanek and his wife Olga had their Czechoslovak citizenship revoked. Vaněk became an outstanding promoter of Czechoslovak music abroad and continued to host many concerts and exhibitions. For his cultural activities, he was awarded the French "Palmes académiques" in France and received a silver medal from Charles University in 1991.
He is also responsible for the fact that the Geneva City Council named one street after President Tomas Garrigue Masaryk.
- Geneva, Switzerland
- Praha, Prague, Czech Republic
Árpád Varga E. (1952–2011) was a Hungarian librarian, social researcher and statistician. He was born as Árpád Ernszt in Budapest. He studied public education and library sciences at the Teacher Training Institute in Szombathely, where he worked for the municipal library in 1972–1973. He worked at the regional unit of the Metropolitan Ervin Szabó Library in Budapest, then at the Library of the Teacher Training Academy in Kaposvár from 1975 to 1978 and at the Library of the Institute of Public Education from 1978 to 1985. He studied at the Training Educational Academy in Eger in 1979 as well. In 1985, he started to do research on the history of the official census surveys of nationalities, the changes in ethno-demographical relations and the questions of population patterns of Hungarians in Transylvania. He published many books and studies on this topic. Beginning in 1985, he was a librarian at the Library of Informational Institute of Public Education, while from 1993 he was the director of the Library of Cultural Innovation Foundation. He was the only person who received the award of the Central Statistical Office as an outsider for his statistical processing of the population history of Transylvania.
- Budapest, Hungary
Mrs. Hetényi Varga is the widow and co-author of Károly Hetényi Varga, who herself did research on clericals who had suffered under the dictatorships of the 20th century. She was born in Szécsény in 1930 as Borbála Varga. After finishing secondary school (1946), she couldn’t continue her studies because of the hard political and economic situation. She later graduated from school and worked at the office of the National Insurance Company. She had to seek treatment at the Korányi Sanatorium (Budapest), because she got tuberculosis in October 1956. She underwent surgery in 1957. After her recovery, she worked at the Sanatorium (1958–1960), where she met Károly Hetényi Varga, who himself sought treatment there. In July 1960, they got married, and soon they had two boys: Péter Pius (1961) and Károly József (1962). Borbála Varga started to work in the surgery in the Komló City Hospital, but after the birth of their first child, she worked as a regional nurse until her retirement. She helped with their husband’s church historical research, typing the audio materials and sorting sorted the documents, which later were edited by her husband. She was the first reader and the first person to correct the manuscripts. After the death of her husband (2002), she offered Hetényi Varga’s collection to the Cistercian Abbey of Kismaros.
- Pécs, Hungary